Robert de Koning worked in the European Commission, DG Budget, and was Team Leader for PIƒC issues. He holds a Master’s Degree in Economics from the University of Tilburg, The Netherlands. He has worked for the Dutch Ministry of Finance, for the Asian Development Bank as alternate executive director and as financial attaché in the Dutch Permanent Representation to the EU in Brussels. He joined the European Commission, DG Financial Control, in 1988. Initially involved in the financial control of the PHARE, TACIS and European Development Funds, he has been leading in developing the PIƒC concept for applicant countries from its beginning in 1994. The ideas expressed in this publication are his and do not necessarily correspond with those of the European Commission. He also takes responsibility for any error or omission in this publication.